The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa
MI: As in India and the Arab Middle East, most Western-educated Africans supported their British and French occupiers in World War I, most significantly by supplying soldiers induced by promises of nationhood after the war.
  • When those promises went unfulfilled, protests ensued. Attempts to encourage pan-African unity alarmed the European powers and encouraged ant colonial sentiments.
  • By the 1920s, pan-Africanism faded, replaced by the brand of nationalism seen in other colonies. The great age of African independence came after World War II.
  • The British and the French overlords during the First World War had loyalty from the western educated Africans.
  • African merchants and farmers suffered from shipping shortages and the decline in demands for crops such as cocoa, so the villagers were unhappy to go hungry so that the crops would feed the allies.
  • African American political figures such as Marcus Garvey and W.E.B Du Bois had major impact on emerging African nationalist’s leaders.
  • The focus was to build pan-African organization but the delegates from colonized areas in Africa faced very different challenges.
  • French speaking West African concentrated their organizational and efforts in Paris were the negritude literary movement that combated the racial stereotyping that had so long held the African in psychological bondage to the Europeans.
  • Writers such as the Senegalese poet Leopold Sedar Senghor, who celebrated the beauty of African skin.
  • Kenya and Rhodesia, western-educated Africans in British territories were given greater opportunities to build political assiciations that linked nationalists of different British colonies, such as ANational Congress of British West Africa.
  • A new generations of leaders was more attacking the British and through their newspapers they reached ordinary African Villagers and the young.
Global Connections
  • World War I set many templates for the twentieth century, resulted in many turning points in world history of full scale revolutions
  • The decline of European hegemony, the emergence of the United States and Japan on the global stage, and communist rule in Russia were results of the war.
  • They were changes in gender roles ranging from marriage and employment that nationalist surges in European colonies and increased political power of labor organizations and women.
  • And Japan and U.S sought ways to replace the European colonazers and replace them as the economic and political centers.
The Liberation of Nonsettler Africa
MI: Independence movements in nonsettler Africa were initiated by Western-educated individuals, like Nkrumah in Ghana.
  • By the mid-1960s the British, French, Portugese and Belgian nonsettler colonies in Africa were independent.
  • Forced labor and problems with crops and minerals and inflation that controlles markets again that cut down African earnings.
  • colonialism had resulted in African industrial limitation and development.
  • Though the urban workers and cash crops farmers had supported the unrest, Western educated Africans only had moved to defense when they worries about losing political status.
  • Nkrumah resiigned his position as the chair of the dominant political party in Gold Coast and established his own Convention People’s Prty, even before the formal brek, used a new style of politics by organizing mass rallies, boycottsm and strikes.
  • At independence in 1960 there were only 16 Africans college graduates in a Congolese population that exceeded 13 million, and by the mid 1960s the European colonial era had come to an end.
Repression and Guerilla War: The Struggle for the Settler Colonies
MI: The pattern of relatively peaceful withdrawal established in nonsettler colonies in Africa was not the norm in settler colonies like Algeria, Kenya, and Southern Rhodesia.
· Instead, years of bloody fighting brought independence, they fought all attempts to turn political control over to the African majority or even to grant them civil rights.
· Unable to make change through nonviolent protest tactics which were forbidden or negotiations with British of French officers who were fearful of angering the highly of revolutionary struggle.
· The first of these in Kenya in early 1950s, with the failure of nonviolent approach by Jomo Kenyatta and the leasing nationalst party.
· Kenya African Union and underground organization around a group of more radical leaders.
· After formaing the land Freedom Armay in earlt 1950s, the radical people compaigns of terror and guirrilla warfare against British.
· Rebel movement had been military defeated by the 1950s at the cost of thousands of lives.
· The struggle of the Arab and berber peoples of Algeria for independence was longer and even more violent.
· B the mid-1950s the National liberation Front had mobilized large parts of the Arab and berber populations of the colony in full scale revolt against French rule and dominace.
· The Algerian struggle was brutalized by a violent settler and brutalized by violent acts.
· Secrets Army Organization, it was directed against Arabas and Berber as as French favoring independence.
· After the bitter civil war, the multiracial accomodation worked out in Kenya appeared out and a formation foa new population resulted.
The Persistence of White Supremacy in South Africa
MI: Only in South Africa did the white minority manage to maintain power after 1980.
· Apartheid was established after 1948, upheld by thousands of laws and a brutal police force.
· In southern Africa ciolent revolutions put an end to white seeler dominace in the Puruguese colonies of Angolia and Mozambique in 1975and southern Rhodesia.
· Unlike the settlers in Kenya and Algeria who had the option of retreating to Europe as full citizens of France or Great Britian.
· Afrikaner idiology was grounded in selected biblical quotations and the celebrations of their history struggle to face changes.
· The subjugation of the Black African became a central aim of political organization in the Africakaner National Party.
· A rigid system of racial unfairness called apartheid by the Afrikaners was established in 1948 through the passage of thousans of laws.
· Restrictions and limited opportunities for higher education mobilized the growth of political organization.
South Africa: The Apartheid State and Its Demise
MI: By the 1970s, South Africa’s majority African population remained under the rule of the country’s European-ancestry population.
· Afrikaner domination had been secured through victory in elections (Africans could not vote) of their Nationalist Party in 1948.
· A vast system of laws was passed to create apartheid, a system designed to ensure white domination of political power and economic resources.
· All aspects of living were segregated and special homelands were formed for the main “tribal” groups, thus leaving whites with most of the richest, productive land.
· The overpopulated homelands were reservoirs of cheap labor for white industry and agriculture.
· A brutal regime was enforced the system. All forms of African protest were illegal. Leaders were imprisoned, tortured, or killed.
· Spanish separation was also organized on bigger scale by the creation of numerous homelands within South Africa and tribal groups within the Black African population
· Africans turned to guerrilla resistance during the 1960s without much immediate success.
· By the 1980s, the state system began cracking because of internal and external economic and political pressures.
· Moderate Afrikaners led by F.W. de Klerk began dismantling apartheid also the release of African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela in 1990 signaled the end of the old order.
· All South Africans voted for a new government in 1994, under Mandela, to begin building a new multiracial nation with equal opportunities for all citizens.
· South Africa is likely to remain one of the most interesting and promising social experiment of an age in which communalism ethnic
hostility threatened by the globe.

In Depth: Artificial Nations and the Rising Tide of Communal Strife

MI: internal strife and the collapse of political systems have been common in the new Asian and African states.
Westerners see this instability and suffering as proof that the decolonized nations are unfit to rule themselves.

  • They overlooked the deep and highly disruptions, divisions and conflicts.
  • The Tutsi minorities were given better opportunity over the Hutu because of colonialism causing internal strife in Rwanda.
  • One reaction in the West is to assert that former colonial peoples are unfit to rule themselves and that many were better off under European rule.
  • Others called for active intervention by the West and Japan.
  • The responses do not give enough attention to the immense obstacles confronting the new nations, or to the harmful legacies of colonial rule.
  • Western societies in the past also had to overcome disruptive social and political divisions.
  • Europeans who gave minimal attention to the interests of the peoples involved artificially created nearly all-new Asian and African states.
  • Civil strife in Pakistan because of the diverse languages and cultures around.
  • Iraq’s saddam Hussein justified his 1990 annexation of Kuwait because of the tiny but oil rich Arabs.
  • The imposed boundaries incorporated ethnic and religious groups that were often very hostile.
  • The colonial rulers maintained power by divide-and-rule tactics.
  • When the colonial era ended, the rulers left resolution of long-existing problems to new regimes unable to contain them. Internal strife and war between states resulted, and democratic regimes suffered.
  • Military spending hampered economic improvement, while hostilities caused extensive human suffering.
  • Arousing dictatorial rule has been the need for communal tensions because of democratic campaigns.


1. Colonial policies were being posed to give all kinds of cultures in colony; their rule was more powerful than all the other individual groups who would form refugees.

2. The cultural affinity was the reason these policies were not taken place, because everyone was treated based on race.

3. People should able to stand up to their beliefs or divide the nation into two groups that would live peacefully with each other.

4. The United Nations should step it up and intervene in ways such as providing aids to these newly formulated nations.

5. In order for the refugee to be stopped from growing is that to provide protection agencies or compromise with them in ways that they wouldn’t terrorize innocent civilians.


Africa post independence, after many years of being under European colonial empires was challenged by internal rivalries, civil wars and unsuccessul infastructure that would long hold them back from being economically successful. Leader of the New nation in Africa were very corruput and politically challeged to try and recondtruct the nation up its low level. Difficulties such as dictatorships from political leaders such as Nkumah faced many military difficulties and financial ones that would later harm their nation. Muslim brotherhood which was founded by Hassan al Banna in 1928 developed a contempt for the wealthy minority of Egyptian and European who flourished in the midst of the poverty of most people. Hosni Mubarak was another example of a political leaders that was very corrupt and even though he was elected by the people, he had the right to stay their his entire life, In south Africa the minority rule under what is called the Aparthgeid state where the Africans were ruled by the white and had no political status or the right to vote. They were not very successful in their independence because even after independence their were not yet free from Great Britian. The system broke their desire for a better life in satisfaction after, but instead they were nearly still oppressed uinil 1994. The economic difficulties were very common among many goups of the African nations.