Classical Rome and Greece

APPARTS chart on Greek civilization

1.1 Sparta

1.2 Athens

Thesis statement:
According to the document identify the similarities and differences between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta.

Ancient Greek city states of Athens and Sparta have a similar ways of life but in different styles. Sparta provided army and assistance when necessary. Athens, on the other hand, wanted to control more and more of the land around them. Spartans trained their male children from the age of seven as it says in the doc " the children of Spartan citizens, especially the boys were under the country of the city more than under their parents" to set their minds for enthusiasm and noble ambition to belong to their country to preserve a city of military encampment. While Athenian created the first democratic government “The freedom we enjoy in our government extends also to our private life.” “That is why it is called a democracy, if you look at our laws, they afford equal justice to all in setting private differences.”This allowed to get the opportunity to do what they desire, believing that individualism was the basis of their country.

ESPIRIT Chart on Rome

Key Terms

Cyrus The Great
By 550 B.C.E. a massive Persian Empire across northern Middle East and into Northwest India, establishing a major cultural and achievements.
The Persian advanced iron technology developed in the region and a lively artistic style, even though the collapsed however their language and culture survived affecting development elsewhere.
Olympic games
The Greek city-stated joined in a regular celebration such as the athletic competitions. Sparta and Athens came to be the two leading city-states.
During the 5th century B.C.E. a famous Greek political figure dominated Athenian politics. He was an aristocrat and was part of a dominated political power in which each citizen could participate inn the city-state assemblies to selects official and pass laws.
Peloponnesian Wars
Athens and Sparta set for control of Greece in 430-404 B.C.E. It was a bitter and long war where ambiguous kings soon conquered cities.
Phillip Two of Macedon
He won the crucial battle in 338 B.C.E. Then his Alexander the Great extended Macedonian empire through the Middle East. This great empire was short lived because its creator died at the age of 33.
Hellenistic Period
The influence of Hellenes, Greek art and culture that lasted. Trade flourished and important scientific centers were established in Alexandria in Egypt.
Roman Republic
Gradually extended its control over the Italian peninsula and conquering the Greek colonies in the South. Acquiring a strong military protection from nearest rival.
Punic Wars
From 264-146 B.C.E. during which Rome fought with the Phoenician city of Carthage in Northern coat of Africa. It included a bloody defeat of the invading forces of the brilliant Carthaginian forces whose general Hannibal had troops were accompanied with troops by pack-laden elephants. After defeat of Carthage, the Romans preceded to seize the entire western Mediterranean along with Greece and Egypt.
Julius Caesar
In 45 B.C.E. on the effective end of the traditional institutions of the Roman State, Caesar’s grand Nephew Augustus Caesar seized power in 27 B.C.E. following another period of rivalry after Julius’s assassination. For 200 years its was a peaceful and prosperous period to a the entire Mediterranean world.
Diocletian and Constantine
Strong later emperors who saved the Roman empire from the downfall it were experiencing. In 303 B.C.E. the emperor Constantine adopted the religion Christianity in attempt to reunite the empire. The Invasion of the Nomadic people from the North marked the end classical period in the Mediterranean civilization.
The word Politics comes from the Greek word city-state, which correctly suggests the intense political interests in parts of the life in both Greece and Rome.
Direct Democracy
Not rule through elected representatives, in the 5th century Athens the major decision of the state made by general assemblies. The assembly meets every 10 days. Executive officers including judges were chosen for a brief terms to control their power.
The most important legislative body composed mainly of aristocrats whose members held all executive offices in the Roman Empire. The two consuls share primary executive power, but in times of emergency the senate could chose a dictator to hold authority until the crisis is over.
He stressed on moral philosophy the importance of moderation and balance in human behavior as opposed to the instability of the political life and the excess of the gods themselves.
Emphasized on the inner moral independence to be cultivated by strict discipline on the body and personnel bravery. This system established a large part in religious rights blending into later religion Christianity.
Socrates’ principle of rational inquiry suggesting the human reason very strongly in understanding the three perfect forms, the absolutely True, Good and Beautiful which believed characterizes the nature.
Iliad/ Odyssey
Greek literature containing a strong epic tradition attributing the poet homer who lived in the 8th century B.C.E. Roman author particularly Vergil also worked on the epic form seeking to link Greek and Roman history and mythology.
The Greek devised three tops of columns supporting their massive buildings each more ornate then the next regarded as classical architecture. Established abundant stone for ambitious temples and public buildings brightly painted. Romans learned how to add domes to rectangular buildings with their engineering skills they constructed even greater sized free-standing stadiums.
Summary of the Chapter

Classical Rome and china were very unique civilizations in terms of their government organization and cultural and religious beliefs. Greece was divided into city-states each with its own type of government. Athens and Sparta were The most important city-states in classical Greece. Sparta was evolved a military aspect while Athens was more individuality and direct democracy, at which they were ruled by aristocrats but the citizens were able to vote for who they want to represent them in public assemblies. In Rome it was different they did not want one person to rule them so all the Romans in the republic gather in periodic assemblies to vote for people to entrust, the most important legislative was the senate and two consuls from the aristocrats, took executive power and have the right to chose a dictator in times of emergency. Furthermore both Greece and Rome didn't generate a major religion they believed in many gods and had regular ceremonies to embrace them, however Rome on the throne of Constantine adopted Christianity to reunite his empire. Greek and Roman literature containing strong epic tradition starting with crafting tales of the Iliad and Odyssey. Their architecture was portrayed by construction of massive public buildings. Both Greece and Roman economies were based on commercial agriculture trade and slavery. And they both emphasized on importance of tight family structures. However, the rise of Rome was almost a continuation of classical Greece that made strong achievements.