The Atlantic revolutions

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The French revolution
Fever Stage
How this stage applies to the revolution you chose
The Incubation Stage
In a revolution, this stage would involve the political, social, intellectual, or economic causes. In some cases, these causes could fester for many years before showing themselves in the form of actual revolutionary action.
  • The enlightenmnet thinkers criticized the french govenmnet for its obsolute monarchy.
  • Hereditary is not a fair way to choose political leaders.
  • There was no equality for vote, and everyone couldn't be part of the govenment.
  • Failed to preserve any liberty to the lower class like the nobility.
  • High taxes
  • Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enligtenment principles of citizenship and rights.
  • Economic force ( debt)
  • Mainly the eliye that got the power.
The Symptomatic Stage
In a revolution, this stage would be the first to involve direct action resulting from the social, political, intellectual, or economic causes of the incubation stage. This stage might involve the publication of works calling for a change, street level riots by the common people, or more direct attempts at changing the society.
  • It was at first the hunger as a result of rise in the price of bread that lead to bread riots.
  • A call for economic equality reasoned with the poor's grievances.
  • The sans-culottes and the third estaes declared itself the national assembly in June 1789.
  • Anti-capitalist wanted governmnet movemnet for rights
The Crisis Stage
In a revolution, this stage would be the make or break part of the struggle. It may involve conflict where sides for and against the revolution compete. This competition could take the form of debate or full-scale war. Successful revolutions survive this stage. Those that do not are usually considered failed rebellions.
  • After a ling period of struggle, the constitution of 1792 guaranteed representative govenment.
  • It ended the right of the nobility and clergy.
  • A revolution of radical prospectives on the preservation of women's rights, abolition of slavery and and istituted price control.
  • With the establishment of the Directory, contemporary observers might have assumed that the Revolution was finished. Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos.
Convalescence
In a revolution, this stage would involve recovering from the extreme disruptions of the crisis stage. In general, the political, social, intellectual, or economic causes of the revolution must be addressed in some way, though not necessarily to the satisfaction of all revolutionaries.
  • The reforms under the power of Napolean underwent and constitution of equality, and civil liberties.
  • His code of Napoleonic Code of 1807 left the legal basic parliamentary monarchy and a representative government in the Chamber of depities elected by a small wealthy percentage of French society.
  • Civil liberties such as freedoms of speech, religion, and assembly also equality became under the law.
  • Slavery was abolished

  • Do you think that this model can be accurately applied to the revolutionary movements occuring today - such as Egypt? - Explain
I believe that the Egyptian revolution of 2011 does not upply to the "fever" model because first of all it was a very quick and all the stages were overlapped. It began with a series of street demonstrations, marches, and acts of disobedience and violent crashes in Cairo, Alexandria. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic background and religions demanded to overthrow the Egyptian president of Hosni Mubarak, along with the end to corrution, and political systems. And since it started on Jan 25 2011 ad ended on feb 11, 2011 it shows how short of a time period it is being in the expand of the same year and less than a month. The people did achieve their goal when Mubarak resigned from office under public pressure. The grievances of Egyptians protesters have forcused on legal and political issues including high enployment, food price inflation and low wages. During the struggle 365 deaths had been reported, and many people were injured. Since there was absence of police, there was looting by gangs that the opposition sources, so civilians formed groups to protect neighborhood. They gained influence and aid from the arab-world too. At the end, Mubarak had to step down as he turns power over to the supreme council of the Armed forces, and a new election will be held. Since the reform was combined with series of rallies and riots happended in demand for change but on a very small period of time in comparison to the French revolution that needed a stronger support and loss just for s small portion of change, bu this one didn't grow steadilly it all happended quickly.

Voice thread video



The video here helped me a lot with understanding the revolution better especially that it explains it in small stages and as it progresses even more step by step.

Stages of the flu

1. What differences are there b\w the beginning, the height and the end of the flu?
At first, it is the contact with the infection. In terms of revolution it is when the economic, political, social, and intellectual causes for the revolution come in out.

After, the temperature rises, and a cough presents itself. In terms of revolution, it is a direct action resulting from the social, political, and economic caused, for example a publication of some sort.

Then the progressive worsening of the illness. In terms of revolution it is when the two sides of struggle break for and against the revolutions, in this stage it sets up that any success will come out of it. (full scale war)

Lastly is the recovering from illness also the knowledge for preventing illness from happening again. In terms of revolution it is the recovery form the struggle and a sufficient satisfaction to all the sides.

2. Describe the specific traits that could be shared with other illnesses?
It is a temporary condition in you body, it leads to the presence of other symptoms, you body starts to fight it and defends your body from catching the virus. Also severe, or disabling pain or cramps, exhaustion dramatic points, then medical recovery.

Page 521-527 Notes

The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914
MI: The unifications of Italy and Germany created new rivalries in western Europe because they developed new functions for government sponsorship.
  • Industrial development continued after 1850, bringing new social changes.
  • Political unification came to Germany and Italy, and governments elsewhere developed new functions.
  • The rise of socialism changed political conditions in terms of urban growth continued, but at a slower pace; in the cities, the conditions of living for all classes.

Adjustments to Industrial Life
MI: family life adjusted to the changes imposed by the industrial economy, like stable populations resulted from declining birthrates and death rates.
  • Greater value was placed on children. Material conditions generally improved as individuals enjoyed better diets, housing, health, and leisure time.
  • Labor movements formed and provided strength for seeking better wages and working conditions.
  • Peasant protests declined and rural isolation diminished. Peasants learned to use market conditions to improve their lives.
  • They developed cooperatives, specialized in cash crops, and sent children to school to learn better techniques.

Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations
MI: Western leaders worked to reduce the reasons for revolution after 1850. Liberals and conservatives realized that cautious change was acceptable to their interests.
  • The great debates were about the constitution and government structures raging from the revolution and rise of absolutism.
  • British conservative Benjamin Disraeli granted the vote to working-class men in 1867, Count Camillo di Cavour, in the Italian state of Piedmont, supported industrialization and extended parliament's powers.
  • Otto von Bismarck of Prussia extended the vote to all adult men, conservatives used the force of nationalism to win support for the existing social order.
  • In Britain and the United States, they won support by identifying with imperial causes; Cavour stimulated nationalist rebellion to unite most of the Italian peninsula under Piedmont.
  • He was a classic diplomatic military strategist an example of effort for large trends such as nationalism.
  • Bismarck fought wars in the 1860s and 1870s that led to German unity in 1871. Other nations also reduced key political issues. The new German parliament with a lower class based on universal male suffrage and an upper house that favored state government.
  • The American Civil War of the 1860s ended the dispute over sectional rights and abolished slavery.
  • France established a conservative republic based on full adult male suffrage.
  • Most Western nations by then had parliamentary systems in which basic liberties were protected and political parties contested peacefully for office.
  • Italy developed a process called trasformismo or transformism in which parliamentary deputies matters what platforms they possessed were transformed once in Rome to a single minded idea of political office and status.

The Social Question and New Government Functions
MI: Government functions expanded after 1870 and the civil service exams allowed individuals to win positions through their own talent.
  • School systems generally became compulsive to the age of 12 and even beyond; literacy became almost universal.
  • Wider welfare measures replaced or supplemented private agencies providing assistance for accidents, illness, and old age.
  • The changes meant that governments and ordinary citizens had more contacts than at any time in history.
  • A realignment of the political spectrum occurred. Social issues became the key criteria for partisanship.
  • The rise of socialism depended on working-class grievances and reflected Karl Marx’s theory that made socialism the final phase of historical development.
  • Leaders in many countries translated his theories into political action, socialist parties became major forces in Germany, Austria, and France by the 1880s.
  • Some socialists, and revisionists became supporters of parliamentary democracy to achieve their goals.
  • Feminist movements by 1900 also challenged the existing order, sometimes by violent actions.
  • Many Western countries extended the right to vote to women during the early decades of the twentieth century.


Cultural Transformations.
Western culture changed because of consumer emphasis and developments in science and the arts.


Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure
MI: Higher wages and increased leisure time produced important alterations in popular culture.
  • Many working-class men and women accepted middle-class values the idea grew that pleasure was a legitimate part of life.
  • The productive capacity of factories meant that consumption had to be encouraged.
  • Product crazes occurred; the stimulated consumerism overcame older customs hindering pleasure seeking.
  • Mass leisure culture emerged with popular newspapers, entertainment, and vacations.
  • Leisure had become a commodity to be regularly enjoyed, there was a rise of disciplined team sports was one aspect of the change.
  • All the popular interests demonstrated a growing secularism present in all aspects of life.


Advances in Scientific Knowledge
MI: Science continued to gain ground, but many other intellectual movements attempted to explain reality.
  • The size of the intellectual and artistic community expanded and found a growing market for its products.
  • Most of the activity was secular, western cultural activity had been built on traditions of rationalism, and the continuing advances in science kept the tradition alive.
  • Darwin offered evolutionary theory in biology and Einstein advanced the theory of physical relativity.
  • The social sciences advanced as a means of gathering empirical knowledge concerning human affairs.
  • Freud developed his theories of the workings of human consciousness.

New Directions in Artistic Expression
MI: Rationalism was not the only intellectual current, the Romanticism insisted that emotion and impression were the keys to understanding human experience.
  • By 1900, the abandonment of conventional standards had expanded to painting, sculpture, and music.
  • African and east Asian influences were joined to the Western experience, the split between Romanticism and rationalism caused much debate;
  • Scientists were supporters of the industrial order, while artists followed experimental paths to finding the reality of modern life.
  • At neither popular nor formal levels did Western culture produce a synthesis during the nineteenth century.


Western Settler Societies
MI: The Industrial Revolution prompted a major expansion of the West's power, and other impacts such as factories, and the superiority of Europeans over other.
  • New markets for manufactured goods and new sources of raw materials were needed.
  • The transportation and communication networks resulting from the Industrial Revolution intensified the effect of the Western-led world economy.
  • They also allowed Europeans and their superior weapons to spread their empires. Massive European immigration created overseas Western societies.