April Vacation Work

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Part 1
In depth: A Century of Revolutions
MI: Not since the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were there revolutions like those in the early twentieth century
  • Differently, the revolutions of the early twentieth century were precursors to later revolutions that struck after 1945
  • Like those from a century earlier, twentieth-century revolutions had several commonalities: rural discontent, population pressures, and high taxes
  • Unlike the previous era, however, twentieth-century revolutions were also caused by the disruptions of the Industrial Revolution and by a Western-centered global market system.
  • In addition, discontented World War I soldiers were a ready source of militant action for revolutions.
  • Opposition to perceived Western influence was another problem to the revolution beginning.
  • Finally, the Communist theories of Marx, Lenin, and Mao were a factor not in existence a hundred years before

Questions:
  1. The internal and external forces that weakened the governments of China and Mexico are rural discontent, pressure of population growth, the high taxes and losing jobs as a result of industrial revolution that lead to their unleashed force to revolutions, western and communist influences as well.
  2. The social group that was most important in the decade behind the revolution were the soldiers and peasants who went through the most struggles, they were ready forces to the upcoming of military actions.
  3. Similarities: riots, rural discontent rising for unfair economic gains, pressure from society that were a direct result of political insufficiently.
  4. Differences: the global market systems that each has, colonial belongings and treatments, economic competitions, in China were the communist spirit for intellectual lives, and anti western sentiments.

Part 2
Revolution in Russia: Liberalism to Communism
MI: In 1917, the tsar abdicated and a provisional government, headed by Alexander Kerensky, struggled to maintain control of the country.
  • When reforms seemed slow in coming, popular unrest ensued and by the end of the year a second revolution occurred, bringing into power a radical new form of government, which was Communism.
  • Under the Bolshevik banner, Vladimir Lenin signed a treaty ending hostilities with Germany and ended any semblance of a multiparty system.
  • An ensuing civil war killed millions, but the Communist Red Army prevailed, under the leadership of Leon Trotsky.
  • Like western liberals, Russian revolutionary leaders such as Alexander Kerensky were eager to see the good parliamentary rule, religious, and other freedoms in political changes.
  • Although Lenin and Bolsheviks had gained a majority in the leading urban soviets problem faced by 1917.
  • Tsarist’s general’s religiously faithful peasants had common ground against communist regime.
  • Industrial nationalistic, famine and unemployment created many problem and resentments were raised against property loss.

Stabilization of the New Regime
MI: Lenin issued the New Economic Policy, a stopgap economic mix of true Communism and capitalism.
  • Food production increased, giving the Bolsheviks time to strengthen their grip on national politics.
  • By 1923, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a fact but was a “peoples’ government” in name only, with all the features of an authoritarian system.
  • Under the leadership of Leon Trotsky recruited generals, which was called Red army that was beneficiary of two ongoing sources of strengths.
  • Lenin issued the new economic policy, which promised considerable freedoms for action and setting effort to fix money issues.
  • The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics where the ethic Russians was preserved in central state section notably Jews.
  • The Supreme Soviet had many trappings of a parliament and was universally suffering.
  • Communist monopolies were able to control major decisions and bureaucracies.
  • Tried to ensure loyalty through reestablishing the Authoritarian system.

Soviet Experimentation
MI: In the middle of the 1920s, the Communist Party encouraged the organization of workers’, students’, and women’s groups, and provided public education.
  • This era of experimentation was short-lived however, as a power struggle broke out among Lenin’s deputies after his unexpected death.
  • The eventual winner was Joseph Stalin who believed in a strong nationalistic version of Communism, which he called “socialism in one country.”
  • Rivals to his political philosophy were exiled and/or killed.
  • Youth movements, women’s groups and organizations of workers all actively debated on problems of social environment.
  • A rapid spread of education promoted by the government and propaganda sponsored many adult services.
  • Education created a shift in mood and reshaping the popular culture away from older tradition of religion to more communist field of science and analysis.
  • Many revolutionary leaders actively encouraged communist parties in the West and set up a Comintern or communist international office to guide such process.
  • Stalin would have industrial development while attacking peasant land ownerships.
  • Rival leaders were killed, and would lead to attacking peasants land ownerships with new collectivization program.
  • It was the overweening aristocratic class that loomed so large in Russian history.

Stalinism in the Soviet Union
MI: A totalitarian state emerged in the Soviet Union beginning in the late 1920s.
  • Under Communism, the largely independent economy avoided the Great Depression.
  • Stepped up industrialization, abject worship of the leader, and a violently repressive police state marked a system very similar to Nazism.
  • The experimental mood of the middle of the 1920s faded when Stalin acquired unquestioned power.
  • He sought to make the U.S.S.R. an industrial society under full control of the state, and control it fully rather than some initiative control
  • He was in tolerance and wanted modernization but in no capitalist was and ideas, even though he was willing t adopt some western techniques.

Economic Policies
MI: Large, state-run farms called “collectives” were formed to replace private land ownership.
  • To ensure cooperation, Stalin approved a policy of starving and murdering millions of peasants.
  • Those who survived, planted and harvested, but not in the amounts Stalin had envisioned.
  • For decades, agricultural production was one of the Soviet Union’s great weaknesses.
  • The area of industrial production was a different story.
  • The government ordered the building of massive factories and an extensive power grid, making the U.S.S.R. a world-class power in heavy industry.
  • Consumer goods were not a priority to Stalin, nor to his successors.
  • The top-down structure of the Soviet system led to considerable waste of resources.
  • The soviets Union was hit by its separate economy, it made much of the nation’s ongoing industrial growth.
  • Communist party made peasants to join socialistic movements.
  • Stalin hoped for speeding up industrialization requiring the peasants to pay the taxation.
  • Many laborers resentful of kulaks wealth but welcoming the fact for more access to land.
  • Most Kolacks refused to cooperate volunteerally to destroying livestock productions.
  • Rural resistence collaped and production began to increase again.
  • The centralized planning process had complicated a smooth flow of supplies and equipments.
  • The collective farfms allow minimal food supplies and massive unskill of workers flow.
  • A system of five year plans under state planning’s began to set priorities and new facilities.
  • Until 1937 the west was in a problem and the soviets Union became a third World industrial powerd behind Germany and U.S.

Toward an Industrial Society
MI: Incentives and nationalist fervor pushed workers to produce more. Cities grew rapidly.
  • One example was welfare services, old-age pensions, and the government providing health programs.
  • Increasing number of the people were crowded into Cities often factory disciplined to install new habits in peasants work forces.
  • Workers had meeting houses and programs to help the, in the industrial societies and in protecting them from illness.
  • Strikes was always outlawed and the trade movements were controlled by the party
  • The Stalin administration worked hard to maintains a worker’s support.

Totalitarian Rule
MI: Stalinism instituted new controls over many aspects of life. Artists, writers, and intellectuals who did not toe the line were exiled to labor camps in Siberia.
  • “Socialist Realism” emphasized heroic images of workers and others. Free scientific inquiry was quashed.
  • Many thousands of real and imagined opponents of Stalin’s vision were executed; many more were exiled within the U.S.S.R.
  • The Politburo sycophantically followed his lead.
  • In foreign relations, the Soviet Union was recognized in the West by the 1930s.
  • Germany arose as a threat after the West showed little interest in fighting Fascism in Spain.
  • Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler and attacked eastern Poland and Finland in an early sign of Soviet conquest that became a hallmark of post-World War I foreign policy.
  • Artists and writers who didn’t line risked exile in Siberian prison camps
  • Socialism realism was a dominant school emphasizing heroic idealization of soldier’s workers and peasants.
  • Politburo became mere rubber stamps; Stalin had broken the nation’s ability to respond to foreign problems.
  • A strong Germany was a threat to Russia from the west and that is why Stalin worked with U.S to block their threat.
  • The Soviets then signed heroic agreements with Hitler.A revival of Russian interest in conquest after attacking eastern Poland.

New Political and Economic Realities
MI: The 1930s clearly changed the world balance that had existed since World War I.
  • Germany and the Soviet Union reasserted their positions as powers to be reckoned with in Europe.
  • Like Germany, Japan recovered to an extent from the effects of the Great Depression and became more militaristic in its outlook.
  • The political tradition since the Enlightenment was called into question in western Europe and the United States.
  • Revolutionary forces remained in Latin America and China.
  • Movements against Western colonialism continued in Asia, Africa, and, in particular, the Middle East.

Global Connections: Depression and Retreat
MI: The Great Depression promoted a wave of nationalist reactions and weakened global ties.
  • Increased tariffs decreased trade; many of the countries dependent on trade.
  • The West reacted with varying degrees of militarism and authoritarianism and yet, at the same time, economic isolation from the West.
  • The world as it had been known was falling apart for the second time in a generation, and no one seemed capable of putting it back together.

The Soviet Union as Superpower
MI: After World War II, the U.S.S.R. was a superpower that rivaled the United States and its status was confirmed when it developed atomic weapons.
  • Several major changes in Eastern Europe paralleled that of the West, including the impact of industrialization and Cold War competition.
  • The Soviet Union sought independence from the world economy and territorial expansion continued.
  • These two nations used diplomacy and military strength to vie for influence in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America.
  • By 1945 Soviet foreign policy had several ingredients Desire to regain tsarist boundaries.
  • As a result of soviet industrialization and its World War II to push westward, the nation that is emerging as a super power likes newcomers United States.
  • Continued participation in the late phases of the war against Japan provided the opportunity to get some islands.

The New Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe
MI: The clearest extension of Soviet power was in Eastern Europe, where it pushed farther toward the West than ever before, there, opposition to Soviet rule was crushed, except in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia.
  • Mass education and propaganda outlets were established. Industrialization was pushed.
  • A counter to NATO, the Warsaw Pact, was set up.
  • The new system generated obvious tensions.
  • The Berlin Wall was built to keep East Germans from escaping to the West.
  • Attempts to rebel against Soviet oppression were crushed in East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland.
  • By the 1980s Eastern Europe had been vastly changed by communist rule and cracks were beginning to appear in the Soviet-built masonry.
  • By 1945, the dominant force in Eastern Europe was the Soviet army, as it pushed the Germans back.
  • Mass education and propaganda and industrialization were greatly increased.
  • The soviets began a front to be able to access key natural resources.
  • The soviets built the Berlin wall in 1961 to keep the flow along the borders of eastern Europe and barbed wire fences
  • A catholic unrest and an independent labor movements called solidarity all against the backdrop of an economy and people with low morale.
  • The expansion of the Soviet influence answered their foreign policy
  • Direct expansionist in order to be committed of troops might

Evolution of Domestic Policies
MI: Within the Soviet Union, Stalinist rule continued, like restriction of travel, media censorship and isolation from the outside world.
  • Party membership was restricted to a few select dedicated associates.
  • Many Soviets fearful of a new war that U.S officials seem to threaten them as an evil power.
  • These attitudes helped with efforts for rebuilding after the war rapidly to the Soviet to regain its industrial might.
  • Strict limits on travel outside media and any other source to self isolate itself for its economy and popular culture.
  • An extensive attention on education, warfare, and police operations that there were many growing educational opportunities even to the peasants.
  • Party membership of the communists continued and new candidates reserved great.

Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and Institutions
MI: Rapid industrialization created new issues in Eastern European society and culture.
  • Freedom of religion was restricted, important literary currents showed impressive vitality, even as Soviet leaders attacked Western culture and sought alternatives to Western-style consumerism.
  • Beginning in the 1950s the Stalinist system yielded to more flexibility but Communist party control remained tight.
  • The sciences, especially those useful to the military, were strongly promoted.
  • By the 1970s new diplomatic and social issues arose.
  • Literature in the Soviet Union remained diverse and creative despite official controls by the communist dominion.
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn for example exiled to the U.S after the publication of his novel the Gulag Archipelago, therefore banned from native land.
  • Along with the interest in the arts and a diversity of expressions despite official party lines soviets culture continued to put interest in science and social science.
  • 20th century Soviet culture overall proved neither traditional nor western.
  • Considerable action about the west remained as they continued to use their art forms.
  • Fear of cultural pollution especially from the non-Marxists political tracts but modern arts remained.
  • They sought for a culture that would enhance their goals of building a socialist society

Economy and Society
MI: The Soviet Union lagged in consumer goods because governmental policy favored heavy industry.
  • Living standards improved compared to pre-war conditions but complaints about poor consumer products and long lines remained throughout the communist era.
  • A great deal of environmental damage occurred because of the drive to produce at all costs.
  • Problems in agricultural production went unsolved as well.
  • Parallels to Western culture included a similar attraction to leisure sports, television, crowded cities, and a dropping birth rate.
  • Soviet propaganda promoted the “equality” of women in the workplace but there were signs that many suffered burdens from demanding job and home life.
  • The product of Soviet industrialization was a great damage to the environments and health.
  • Despite the importance of distinctive political and economic characteristic easterners had shared similar facts.
  • The class distinction was a common social feature between the Easterners and westerners for wealth was a large gap.
  • Patterns of childbearing devoting great attention to promoting their children’s education and good jobs for the future.
  • Soviets took pride in giving women in their equality but there were signs that many women were suffering from demanding jobs with little form husbands.

De-Stalinization
MI: After Stalin’s death in the 1950s, Nikita Khrushchev emerged as his successor as the communist dictator.
  • Khrushchev triggered a partial thaw of Stalin’s vicious policies and at times seemed to promote cooperation with the West.
  • In fact, however, little real change was made in the communist institution and after domestic and foreign failures; the ruling party ousted Khrushchev.
  • The U.S.S.R. held the lead in the space race with the U.S. until the late 1960s.
  • Relations with communist China and other nations turned sour. High rates of alcoholism plagued the male workforce.
  • Economic growth fluctuated through the 1980s, by which time the entire system lay on the verge of collapse.
  • Cold war policies to undo the western rule and power over them, where they installed Cuban missiles in Cuba yielding only from U.S of wanting to remove them.
  • He hoped to beat the U.S, where they expanded their space satellite Sputnik the first space shuttle in 1957.
  • The nation faced a number of new foreign policies faced a number of problems in growing power of China.
  • Problems of work motivation and discipline became largely decreased by the 1980s, because of high rates of alcoholism so severe that lead to weak work ethic.
  • Vigorous propaganda and popular pride believing in the achievements on the Soviet power that no one realized it was getting into an end.

Global Connections: The Cold War and the World
MI: Competition between the West and the Soviet alliance dominated many aspects of world history from 1945 to 1992, playing a key role in decolonization and nationalism.
  • Both governmental forms emphasized science, both sold weapons on the world market, both promoted new roles for women.
  • The massive competition between the West and the Soviet Union alliance dominated many aspects of history.
  • It gave other nations the opportunity to go against each other.
  • Both societies emphasized on science and pressured for cultural changes.

The Explosion of the 1980s and 1990s
MI: By the mid-1980s, the intense rivalry with the United States contributed to a deteriorating Soviet economy.
  • Forced industrialization had caused extensive environmental disaster throughout Eastern Europe.
  • Related diseases impaired morale and economic performance. Infant mortality rates soared.
  • Industrial production slowed and economic growth stopped for many reasons
  • The one-third of national income continued to go to military production as a result of military efforts and political administrations.
  • Younger leaders recognized that the system might collapse.

The Age of Reform
MI: In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev introduced reforms. He urged nuclear reduction and negotiated with the United States a limitation of medium-range missiles in Europe.
  • The war in Afghanistan was ended by Soviet withdrawal. Internally Gorbachev proclaimed glasnost, or openness, the freedom to comment and criticize.
  • He urged use of market incentives and reduction of bureaucratic controls.
  • But strong limits on political freedom remained and the centralized planning apparatus resisted reform.
  • Gorbachev’s policies partly reflected ambivalence about the West as he reduced isolation but still criticized Western values.
  • He wanted reform, not abandonment, of basic Communist controls.
  • The keynote to reform was perestroika, or economic restructuring.
  • This meant more private ownership and decentralized control of aspects of the economy.
  • Foreign investment was encouraged and military expenditures were reduced to free resources for consumer goods.
  • In 1988 a new constitution gave considerable power to a parliament and abolished the Communist monopoly of elections.
  • Gorbachev was elected to a new and powerful presidency in 1990 as people argued for or against reform.
  • The economic and political conditions provoked agitation among minority nationalities; some demanded independence.

Dismantling the Soviet Empire
MI: The states of Eastern Europe took advantage of the new times to seek independence and internal reform.
  • Soviet troops were withdrawn, Bulgaria arranged free elections in 1989; Hungary and Poland in 1988 installed non-communist governments and moved toward a free economy.
  • Czechoslovakia did the same in 1989, East Germany in 1989 removed its Communist leaders;
  • The Berlin Wall came down and full German unification occurred in 1991.
  • The only violence occurred in Romania when an authoritarian ruler was overthrown.
  • The Communists retained power, through elections, in Bulgaria and Romania; in Albania a more flexible Communist regime took control.
  • The new situation in Eastern Europe was marred by ethnic clashes.
  • Yugoslavia fell apart and brutal fighting broke out among its former components.
  • The new governments faced serious economic and environmental problems.

Renewed Turmoil in 1991 and 1992
MI: In 1991 Gorbachev survived an attempted coup because of popular support.
  • Central authority weakened the minority republics sought independence and the Baltic republics gained independence.
  • The end of 1991 had replaced the Soviet Union by a loose union of republics.
  • Gorbachev had resigned and was replaced by Boris Yeltsin. Economic and political tensions were rampant.
  • By the late 1990s Yeltsin had lost support and was succeeded by Vladimir Putin.
  • He pledged reforms and commitment to democracy.
  • Debate continued over the future of Russian society.

Write a thesis statement for the following questions (10 points)
*Analyze the changes and continuities in Russian political structure from 1914 to the present
In the period from 1914 to present day under the leadership of communist leadership, the government officially proclaimed social equality when in reality many people were suffering while increased tensions and conflict with western culture remained the same.


*Analyze the changes in Russian Society from 1914 to the present
Communism was a direct effect of World War I and for that matter many weak nations like Russia turned to fascism and totalitarianism because of their weak governments that needed to be reshaped while remaining as a key power and proud nation.

Leadership analysis: Stalin


China
Toward Revolution in China
MI: The fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912 began a long struggle over the political future in China.
  • Which would involve around Western-educated politicians, academics, warlords, peasants, and foreign powers, most notably Japan.
  • The fall of Qing china opened the way for the extended struggle over which leader would be able to continue the mandate to rule the ancient society and a large lives of population.
  • The ultimate ruler best fit is the communist party under Mao Zedong.
  • Yuan Shikai who hoped to seize the Manchu throne and found a new dynasty.
  • This involvement in politics leads to the openness of china to foreign involvement from west education and warlords like Sub Yat-seen.
  • Rebuilding the Chinese civilization was a result of the students.
  • But military and political struggle like the Japanese influences were major factors for the bloody contest over Chinese mastery.

China’s May Fourth Movement and the Rise of the Marxist Alternative
MI: Sun Yat-sen’s Revolutionary Alliance had spearheaded the overthrow of the Qing, but Sun’s political power was weak from the start.
  • Increasing Japanese encroachment into China’s internal affairs led to the May Fourth Movement in 1919.
  • The movement sought Western-style reforms but proved ineffective against powerful warlords not interested in yielding power.
  • The example of the Russian Revolution and the ideology behind Marxist theory led Mao Zedong to form the Communist Party of China.
  • The Bolshevik victory in rebuilding Russia prompted china to h=give serious attention to the works of Marx’s and other socialist thinkers.
  • The most influential thinker was Li Dazhao from peasant origin but excelled school and became a college teacher.
  • He headed a Marxist study circle that developed in 1919 in University of Beijing.
  • Appealed to the young Mao Zedong who joined Li’s study circle, sharing it with the Confusion ideology to be the political activist organizations.
  • In the summer of 1921 was a meeting for all the Marxist believers to meet in the city of Shanghai is where the communist china was born.
  • It replaced the institutional collapse of the confusion order.

The Seizure of Power by China’s Guomindang
MI: Sun Yat-sen formed the Nationalist Party of China and forged key alliances with several groups in an attempt to rid the nation of the warlords.
  • Promising social and land reforms, the Guomindang, a nationalist party instead focused on international issues.
  • In an attempt to gain support from the peasants and urban workers, Sun even allied with the Communists, Chinese and Russian, and received aid from the latter.
  • Meanwhile, the government largely ignored crises like famine and disease among the rural poor.
  • The Nationalist began to stress the need for a strong central government to bring the imperialist intruders under a social reform
  • In 1924 the Whampoa Military Academy was founded with Soviet help and staffed Russian instructors.
  • The young military commander Chiang Kai-shek the son of a poor salt merchant had a connection with powerful figures in military training.
  • Famine and disease stalked the countryside while irrigation systems was a problem.
  • Sun gave lip service to the nationalist party’s need to deal with peasant problem.
  • Serious difficulties were there between peasantry and the landowners.

Mao and the Peasant Option
MI: Mao was a committed revolutionary who understood the importance of peasant support.
  • Sun died in 1925 and was replaced by Chiang Kai-shek who, with Western approval, quickly turned against the Communists, most brutally in Shanghai.
  • Mao led his supporters in the Long March and regrouped.
  • By this time, Japan was the more imminent threat to China as a whole, and the Nationalists under Chiang had to ally with the Communists to fight the invaders.
  • Mao was a very independent leader who found his life on his own.
  • An attack of the communist rural stronghold in south central China supported by German advisors caused Mao to spearhead a Long March of 90000 followers in 1934 across thousand of miles to shape communist control.
  • Mao’s leadership of Chinese communism and Japanese invaders in 1930s.
  • The revolution was from over and of Japanese threat and advance

Mao’s China and Beyond
MI: Chiang Kai-shek’s success during the 1930s was interrupted by Japanese invasion.
  • He allied with the Communists and for the next seven years war against the Japanese replaced civil war.
  • The war strengthened the Communists at the expense of the Guomindang since the Japanese when waging conventional warfare defeated it.
  • The Communists fought guerrilla campaigns and extended control over much of north China.
  • Intellectuals and students changed their allegiance to the Communists.
  • By 1945 the balance of power was shifting to Mao, and in the renewed civil war after the defeat of Japan, the Communists were victorious in 1949.
  • Mao triumphed because Communist policies won the support of the peasantry and other groups.
  • Land reform, education, and improved health care gave them good reason to support Mao.
  • The Communists won because they offered a solution to China's fundamental social and economic problems.
  • By 1945 Chiang and what was left of his armies fled to the island of Formosa renamed Taiwan and Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in Beijing.
  • Li Biao who had been trained at Chiang’s Whampoa Academy in 1920s proved a conventional warfare than the corrupt of Nationalist generals.
  • The communist’ long struggle for control had left the party with a strong political and military organization that was rooted in the party cadres and the People’s liberation Army.
  • The Chinese flexed their military and technological muscle by defeating India in a brief far exploding nuclear device developed by nonindustrial nation.

The Communists Come to Power
MI: The long struggle had given them a strong military and political organization.
  • The army was subordinate to the party, and the Communists used their strength to reassert Chinese regional preeminence.
  • Secessionist movements in Inner Mongolia and Tibet were suppressed and, in the 1950s, China intervened in the Korean War and preserved the division of that country.
  • They periodically threatened to invade the Guomindang refuge in
  • Taiwan, and supported the Vietnamese liberation movement. The close cooperation with the Soviet Union collapsed by the late 1950s because of border disputes and arguments with the post-Stalinist leadership.
  • During the early 1960s, China defeated India in a brief border war and exploded a nuclear device.
  • Mao had long nurtured a deep hostility toward elitism, which was associated by the Confucian system.
  • Mao and his supporters pushed Mass line approach with formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955.
  • The peasants had enjoyed their owning hold for less than three years, as he occurred in the Soviet Union the leaders of revolution.
  • In 1957 Mao struck at the intellectual through what may have been a miscalculation.
  • Having stopped the critics into the open shocked by the response prison sentence and banishment to hard labor in collectives.

Planning for Economic Growth and Social Justice
MI: Government activity for domestic reform was equally vigorous, but less successful.
  • Landlords were dispossessed and purged, and their lands redistributed.
  • To begin industrialization, a first five-year plan commenced in 1953, drawing resources from the countryside for its support.
  • Some advances were achieved in heavy industry, but the resulting consequences of centralized state planning and a privileged class of urban technocrats were unacceptable to Mao.
  • He had a deep hostility to elitism and to Lenin’s idea of a revolution imposed from above; he clung to his faith in peasants as the force of the revolution.
  • The Mass Line approach began in 1955 with the formation of agricultural cooperatives; in 1956 they became farming collectives that provided the bulk of Chinese production.
  • Peasant ownership ceased. In 1957 intellectuals were purged after being asked their opinion of government policies.
  • The external threats China posed by the U.S intervention in Korea and continuing led Mao to enforce changes.
  • The peasants had enjoyed their own holding for less than 3years and the leaders earlier in Soviet Union.

The Great Leap Backward
MI: The Great Leap Forward, an effort to revitalize the revolution by restoring its mass and rural base, was launched in 1958.
  • Small-scale industrialization aimed at creating self-reliant peasant communes, but instead resulted in economic disaster.
  • Peasants reacted against collectivization.
  • Communist China experienced its worst famine, the crisis exacerbated by a growing population and a state rejection of family planning.
  • The government did then introduce birth control programs and succeeded in slowing population increase.
  • By 1960 the Great Leap ended and Mao lost his position as State Chairman. He continued as head of the Central Committee.
  • Pragmatists such as Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqui, and Deng Xiaoping pushed policies of restored state direction and local level market incentives.
  • Great leap Forward in 1958 by political opposition within the party and army.
  • In the face of the environmental overcrowding that his population and birth rates.
  • Mao lost his position as state central Committee of pragmatists including Mao’s old ally Zhou Enlai along with Liu Shaoqui and Deng Xiaoping came to power determined to restore state direction.

“Women Hold Up Half of the Heavens.”
MI: Mao, assisted by his wife Jiang Qing, was committed to the liberation of Chinese women. Guomindang efforts to reverse gains made by women during the early revolution caused many women to support the Communists.
  • They worked in many occupations in Communist ranks.
  • When the revolution triumphed, women received legal equality.
  • Women gained some freedom in selecting marriage partners and were expected to work outside of the home.
  • Educational and professional opportunities improved.
  • Traditional male attitudes persisted and women had to labor both in and out of their homes. Males continued to dominate upper-party levels.
  • Transitional attitudes toward childrearing and home care, where women were required not only to hold down to raise a family.
  • Many held cadre posts at the middle and lower levels of the party and bureaucracies.
  • The nationalist campaigns to restore Chinese women to their traditional domestic roles and dependence on men and employment of women advance.
  • Women’s rights efforts was to put an end to foot binging.
  • And a much legal rights and open educational career opportunities for women.

Mao’s Last Campaign and the fall of the Gang of Four
MI: By 1965 Mao believed that he had won sufficient support to overthrow his pragmatist rivals.
  • He launched the Cultural Revolution during which opponents were attacked, killed, or forced into rural labor.
  • Zhou Enlai was driven into seclusion, Liu Shaoqui killed, and Deng Xiaoping imprisoned.
  • The destruction of centralized state and technocratic elites endangered revolutionary stability.
  • Mao terminated the campaign in 1968 as the military brought the Red Guard back into line./
  • The struggle between Mao and his rivals recommenced, with Deng slowly pushing back the Gang of Four led by Jiang Qing.
  • The deaths of Zhou Enlai and Mao in 1976 cleared the way for an open succession struggle.
  • The pragmatists won out; the Gang of Four was imprisoned for life. Since then the pragmatists have opened China to Western influences and capitalist development, but not to political reform.
  • The Communists, since taking power in 1949, have managed a truly revolutionary redistribution of China’s wealth.
  • The mass people have much better standards of living than under previous regimes, and their condition is superior to that of the people in many others developing regions.
  • The agricultural and industrial growth rates have surpassed India’s.

Democratic Protest and Repression in China
MI: On June 4, 1989 Chinese troops and protestors had launched a fight for a democratic system instead of the communist one party control.
  • This resulted in militaristic action of imprisonment people and putting them into exile.
  • The document is by Li Peng that talks about communist and tradition concerning politics.
  • It is calling for everyone’s’ support to mobilize in helping restore order in society and maintain stability and Unity.
  • Many distributions had occurred in Traffic, government facilities and a great damage to China’s international image.
  • He is speaking of ways to stop the students’ hunger strikes, that had been going on.
  • Many violent actions had anticipated the road track and efficiency.
  • They came to be more tolerant because they regard them as their children and future of China.
  • They believe that their measures to stop turmoil will be accepted by the communist league, peasants, intellectuals, and democratic parties.
  • Police efforts as well as PLA for helping out the masses.

Questions
  1. Li Peng’s disapproval of the protest movement is because of the major turmoil it is causing and the disruptions that it is monitoring in trains and in traffic especial if we considering that the government is trying to produce a better environment.
  2. He tries to claim the disadvantaged that most of these protest are making in the Chinese nation, also he is trying to manipulate them into thinking that the government is doing its best to recover.
  3. The arguments resemble other manipulation ways that government make to stop any problematic issues that go against them, punishment and creating a negative impression.
  4. Things that the government is already working on it, and things would get better by itself, and usually according to Chinese tradition to not copy other people’s ideas and ways of life, especially capitalism and democratic virtues.
  5. The Chinese decided to repress from democracy because of communist influence on them as well as maintains a government that has the most power over the masses that everything they wish for is already striven to accomplish.

Write a thesis statement for the following questions (10 points)
*Analyze the changes and continuities in Chinese politics from 1914 to the present
In the period from 1914 to present day, communism began to take effect in both China and provided a bright outlook for countries who needed to fix their governments, However many of the Confucian ideologies have remained.

*Analyze the changes in Chinese Society from 1914 to the present
In the period from 1914 to present day China underwent long civil struggle to unify its nation and create a social reforms that would plan for economic growth and create justice to all class including women that would reshape their order under communist leaders.

Leadership analysis: Mao Zedong**