What is civilization?
Civilization is a society of group of people with a political, social and economic structures as well as a language in a form of writing instrument. A society with a form of law.

1.2. ESPIRIT chart on Mesopotamian society(Sumer)

1.3 ESPIRIT chart on Mesopotamian society(Sumer) .

The Sumerians developed complex religious rituals, in which each city had a patron god to please and give honor to their achievements. The Sumerians developed a cuneiform alphabet, the first known case of human writing. The Sumerians organized city-states ruled by king who claimed complete authority. And military leadership. Kings and noble class along with priesthoods controlled a lot of land worked by slaved. The Sumerians added to their region agriculture prosperity by learning fertilizers and adopting silver as means of exchange for buying and selling.

1.4 Key Terms
From Hunting and Gathering to Civilizations

1.5 Hammurabi's law

Summary of the Chapter

As a result of the developemnt of agriculture many important changes to human culture occured following the stone age or the neolithic revolution. In addition to farming, animals were being domesticated, greater wealth and larger population were developing because people now actually staying in one spot the age after of hunting and gathering. Civilizations were built in a complex way of social, political and economic structures. Kings were given social status and slaves taking the lowest class. For Example, the Among the earliest civilizations were the diverse peoples living in the fertile valleys lying between the Tigris and Euphrates valley, or Mesopotamia, Sumerians were a good example of a civilization because they were organized as city-states, developed a comlex religious rituals and developed a cuneiform way of writing using geometric symbols. These Sumerians were constantly at war with one another and other peoples. The Sumerians seem to have developed one of the world's first systems of monarchy; the early states they formed needed a new form of government in order to govern larger areas. The sumerians invented calendars, which they divided into twelve months based on the cycle of the moon. Sumerian religion was polytheistic, that is, the Sumerians believed in and worshipped many gods these gods were incredibly powerful. And what completes this significant civilization the Code of Hammurabi, written by a Babylonian monarch, reproduces Sumerian law fairly exactly. Sumerian law, as represented in Hammurabi's code. The first civilizations established a pattern of division among the world’s peoples. After Homo sapiens spread to almost every corner of the world and then had relatively little contact with each other, separate languages and cultures developed. But by 1000 B.C.E. Trade with Britain and Chinese silk was sold in Egypt. Overall, four distinct centers of civilizations developed: the Middle East, India, China, and Egypt. Each had important accomplishment including trade, writing, and cities, yet was in many ways different from the others.