Early modern Age


hen2.jpg


  • The Russian and Ottomans Empire extended over both Europe and Asian territory while the Mughal Empire extended into the Indian subcontinents.
  • In 1450 trade focused on exchanges among Asia, Africa, and Europe across some overland routes.
  • By 1750 oceangoing routes across the Pacific and particularly the Atlantic had become important.
  • The Ottoman Empire who conquered Constantinople, then extended their over the Byzantine territory, and Christian change in priorities by the want for the restoration of lost lands by Muslims.
  • A steady progression of exploration by Europeans from Atlantic coast of Africa was motivated to find new ways of trade.
  • New military technologies were invented such as European mariners began to use compasses and other navigational devices that were first introduced by the Arabs and Chinese.
  • New weapons such as guns and gunpowder by Chinese now used by Europeans.
  • The new guns helped in the creation of new empires overseas.
  • The Changes were gorging of a new global economy, new biological exchanges of food, animals and people such as slaves.
  • The emergence of new large empires based on guns.
  • International trade increased, for the first time including the Americas for exchange.
  • Regions becoming closer together and exposing them to international influences.
  • New foods from America started growing in Europe and Asia.
  • Population loss in Europe encouraged new migration, from Europe and Africa into the Americas.
  • The massive African slave trade was a response to labor shortage.
  • These Colombian exchanges altered many relationships among populations
  • New disease developed by the increase of population and new foods.
  • The main development was a global economy and the biological exchange and emergence of politically

World economy
Transformations in west
Russia development
Latin America
African Age of Atlantic Slave Trade
The Ottoman and Mughal empires
Chinese globalism and ming dynasty

Summary



Test Prep
Use the table below to take notes on major events/developments that occurred during this time period.


Region
Major Events
Major Developments
Major Continuities
Western Europe
They colonized and found gold and silver and took the land of other.
They became powerful and superior.
Searched for economic gains and trade
Missionary influence by the christianity.
Protestant reformation, the renaissance were major changes.
Enlightenmnet and schintific revolution brough intellectual changes
Absolute Monarquy and parliamntary monarquy seen fpr tensions between govenmnet and king authority.
Europen merchant fleets seized controltrading routes.
Brought technological innovation.
Central/South Americas
Gold discovered in Brazil
Jesuit expelled from Brazil
Silver and gold were found leading to a change in world order.
Indigeneous people suffer complete loss of identity.
They work in plantations.
North America

The English charted a company for maintaing its own slave resources.
It was colonized by the Frensh, the English and Dutch.

Colonies began to form
It became a major part of the wold economy.
A supplier of crops and unkown plants.
The Indegineous people worked hard to keep their cultural beliefs
Russia
After its break from Mongol invasion it resturned to their old fasion beliefs.
Westernization by Peter the Great
Development of serfdom and life of the masses.
Cossaks used for expansion reasons
They maintained a strong military force.
Kept their old beliefs of the superiority of the aristocrats.
Middle East
Increase in wealth and importance for the world economy
They began their independence in economic and political actions
They formed their own identity and religious ideas.
India
Islam influence under the Mughals
English gain first trading concession in India.
Rise of Portuguese and English in addition to Dutch trading empires in and island of Java.
Tribute
It was influenced from the Hinduism and Muslim rituals that led to a combination.
China

202-220 Han dynasty increased bureacracy
Examinations, spread of Confuscianism.
Silk Road

Ming china was formed after the Mongol invasion
Restoration of culture and confucianism
China prided itself on reviving and maintaining its systems of government.
Africa
200B.C.E-200C.E was the period of greatest Buddhist influnce.
It became a world supplier of slaves
Became wealthy and influened by Europeans and Muslim traders.
Despite its change of trade position, some societies still kept their old ways of kinship.
Japan
Missionary activity and interference by the English
Influence from Confuscianism ideas and chinese intelectuals
1597, began its isolation policy.
It restored it own indivisual identity because of their worry about missianary activity


Key Terms that you need to know


Italian Renaissance: a movement that challenged medieval intellectuals values and styles, encouraged new ways of thinking.
Humanism: a focus on human kind as the center of artistic direction.
Northern Renaissance: focused in France the low countries and Germany and England with classical styles in art and architectural range.
European Style Family: Family structure change involving a late marriage age and a nuclear emphasis on parents and children rather than the agricultural civilization (limits on family birth.)
● Protestantism: urged state control of the church as an alternative to papal authority for a political appeal.
● Jesuits: a new religious orger, active in politics, education, and missionary activity regaining some parts of Europe for church.
● Edict of Nantes: in 1598 the disputes was ended only with the granting of tolerance to protestants.
● Thirty Years War: Broke out in 1628, pitting Germany Protestant and allies such as Lutheran Sweden against the Holy Roman emperor backed by Spain. (reduced German power).cutting population up to 60%.
● Treaty of Westphalia: an agreement to the territorial tolerance concept finally settled rebellion of the Protestant against Spain.
● Proletariat: people without access to wealth producing property.
● Scientific Revolution: most affected formal intellectual life promoted change in popular life.
● Absolutism: the power of the monarch French system, an good example is Louis XIV summed up all its principles. Kept nobles busy with social functions so they would not interfere with his affairs of State.
● Enlightenment: Centered in France and throughout Europe, continued to support scientific studies but applied it to human society.
● Boyer:The idea that Ivan IV used of killing many of the Russians nobles
● Cossacks: The peasant adventurers and Russian pioneers who were responsible for the territorial expansion of Russia.
● Time of Troubles (Russia) After Ivan the IV died without a heir leading to a new power claim by the Boyer's plus a Swedish and Polish attacks on the territory.
● Romanov Dynasty: An assembly of Boyer's chose a member of the family as tsar.
● Peter the Great:: The son of Alexis he extended his predecessors policies of building tsars, expanding territory and adding western ideas into Russian one.
● Catherine the Great: She defended the powers of the central monarch, she put down a peasant uprising.
● Obrok: A poll tax paid by peasants absent from their lord's estate.
● Pugachev Rebellion: A vigorous peasant uprising led by Emelian Pugachev.
● Serfdom: A distinctive economic system the life of the Russian Masses under the nobility’s power.
● Encomiendas: Large estates and grants of American Indian labors providing an economic basis.
● Hispaniola: The return after Columbus’s voyage a colony was established on the Island of Santo Domingo.
● Mita: a system by which the crown allowed certain colonists to recruit Indians for forced labour.
● Colombian Exchange: dramatically widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves
● Treaty of Tordesillas: agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World.
● Recopilacion: codified laws into the basis of for government if in the colonies.
● Council of the Indies: the people that the king relies on in advising him and issue laws.
● Sociedad de castas: a system based on racial origins,
● Peninsulares: people born in Spain
● Creoles: people born in the new
● Factories: Forts and trading routes with resident merchant
● El Mina: the most important fort to the Portuguese in Africa.
● Royal African Company: The English chartered to get their own sources of slaves.
● Indies Piece: Spanish system of choosing healthy men, women and children were priced for a fraction of value.
● Triangular Trade: Slaves were carried to the Americas sugar, tobacco and other goods were then carried to Europe ad then some goods went to Africa for more slaves.
● Asante: In the Area called the gold coast by the European the empire rose for the prominence of slave trade.
● Benin: The coast of height in power independent nation with its own artistic ability worked with Europeans in slave trade
● Dahomey: had an autocratic government but trade was through the royal court
● Great Trek: an eastward and north-eastward migration away from British control in the Cape Colony during the 1830s
● Mfecene: Wars of crushing an wandering.
● Middle Passage: Slave voyage to the Americas
● Ottomans: After an early leader named Osman came to dominate the rest advance into Asia minor and Europe.
● Janissaries: :An infantry division made up of troops
● Vizier: a large bureaucracy carried out imperial administration
● Safavid: were one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Islamic conquest of Persia
● Mughal: The greatest flourishing of northern Indian culture, art, and imperial strength undoubtedly took place during the reign of the
● Sati: An alternative name for Hindu goddess Dakshayani,
● Zhenghe: originally named Ma He, was born into a Muslim family just beyond the borders of China
● Tokugawa Japan: the period between 1853 and 1867, during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy
● School of National Learning (Japan): Increase influence of Confucianism a policy that emphasis Japanese culture.
● Mercantilism: The doctrine that urged the nation states not import goods from outside its own empire but sell as widely as possible.