World War the Nationalist and I Assault on the European Colonial Order
MI: WWI presented the subjugated peoples of Africa and India sending their young men by the millions to be slaughtered in the horrific and barbaric trench on the western Front.

  • Four years of war disrupted European colonial domination and encouraged nationalist movements that began before World War I.
  • To shore up power in the colonies, the British and French made promises of increased self-determination to local elites but then resentment grew on them after the war.

India: The Makings of the Nationalist Challenge to the British Raj.
MI: Because India and much of the Southeast Asia had been colonized long before Africa; movements for the independence arose in Asian colonies earlier then African counterparts. (economic distrubutions caused colozation problems)
  • The Indian nationalist movement set the pattern of challenge to colonial authorities in Asia and Africa.
  • Because of the India’s size the role-played in British Empire, they formed movements that pioneered patterns and European retreat that were later seen.
  • Key themes emerged, such as leadership by Western-educated elites and charismatic figures and nonviolent forms of protest.
  • Spread of ant colonial struggle to the peasants and urban masses.
  • The Indian (national) Congress Party led its country’s move toward independence, led by Indians and governed through most of the Era. It grew out in regional associations that Western educated Indians.(more aware of the political movements)
  • It is run by the officials, which the opinions of educated Indians could me made known to the government heading for political pretest.
  • The member of the Congress party voiced concern for the growing poverty of the Indian masses and wealth of Great Britain.
  • They became troubled by the growing British racism because of the limited opportunities in the colonial days.
  • A rise of the sense of common Indian identity linguistically, religiously and ethnically.
Social Foundations of a Mass Movement
MI:By the beginning of the twentieth century, resistance to over a hundred years of British rule mounted in India. Charges of British racism and detrimental economic policy grew steadily.
  • The British countered that their policies provided efficient government, but nationalists replied the price paid was too high.
  • The British produced a disruption to their identity and discontent.
  • Indians have seen the inequality; nationalists’ thinker saw the differences.
  • Radical nationalists were indifferent to the suffering caused by food shortage and outbreaks of the disease.
  • Large portions of government of India’s budget went to cover the expenses of the huge army of the British.
The Rise of Militant Nationalism
MI: Indian leaders, such as B. G. Tilak, demanded full and immediate independence and threatened violence.
  • His rhetoric appealed to many Hindus, but frightened others, especially moderate Hindus and Muslims.
  • His popularity was only confined to his home, where British imprisoned him for radical demand.
  • The other threat was Hindu communalist who advocated the violent overthrew of the colonial regime.
  • Bengalis encountered secret societies that created violent threat to the British
  • Secret societies sprang up that promoted and carried out violence, but British crackdowns limited their effectiveness.
  • The Moley Minto reforms of 1909 provided educated Indians with expanded opportunities such as vote and serve Indian legislative.

The Emergence of Gandhi and the Spread of the Nationalist Struggle
MI: Unlike Tilak, Mohandas Gandhi appealed to both the masses and the Western educated nationalist politicians. His emphasis on nonviolent but persistent protest weakened British control of India.
  • The British relied a lot on India tropical dependencies during war where Indian princes offered help and loans
  • Peasant discontent in high value products, famines and inflation
  • The British refusal to honor their promise such as India becoming self-governed so they opened Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919.
  • Offset by the Rowlett Act which put restriction to key civil rights which fueled protest, when Mohandas Gandhi emerging as a dominant leader who lead India against the colonial overlords.
  • He led violent protest and radical movements labeled Satyagraha or truth force provided an effective way against British.
  • His skills enabled him to appeal to the middle class, western educated Indians, image of Guru that Gandhi gaining support from the peasant laborers given influence.
  • His political savvy and dogged determination made him a formidable opponent to British authorities that consistently underestimated his abilities and appeal.
  • Under his leadership, nationalist protest surged in India during the 1920s and 1930s.

Pages 722-723 Notes
The Winning of Independence in South and Southeast Asia
MI: The outbreak of the WWI soon put an end to the accommodations between the Indian National congress and British in late 1930s Congress thought that helping British would give them significant share of power at the all India level and give them advantage when begin struggle for independence.
  • Sir Stafford Cripps was sent to India in early 1942 to see wether a deal could be struck with the Indian leaders.
  • A mass civil disobedience campaigns under the guise of the Quit India Company, which began in the summer of 1942.
  • The British responded with repression and mass arrests and for much of the remainder of the war Gandhi, Nehru, and other major Congress politicians were imprisoned.
  • Of the Indian nationalists parties only the communists who were committed to the antifascists alliances, the Muslim League rallied to the British cause.
  • The league led by former Congress party politician the dour and uncompromising Muhammad Ali Jinnah won much favor from the British for its wartime support became a role in struggle for decolonization in South Asia.
  • Inflation, urban unrest, and widespread famine in 1942-44 brought on in part by wartime transport shortages engendered much bitterness in rural India. Winston Churchill defeat in the first postwar British election in 1945 brought a labour government to power that was ready to deal with India's nationalist leaders.
  • A sense that a separate state called Pakistan should be found.
  • As rioting spread the Congress party politician concluded that bloodbath could start, so the creation of two continent one Muslims that handed power to the leader of Congress party and to Jinnah.
  • Vicious Hindu and Muslims communal rioted in which neither women nor children were spared, villages were destroyed, trains were attacked and many people were afraid.
  • When Gandhi was about to recite a tolerance ways he was shot by Hindu fanatic.
  • India's independence and Gandhi's peaceful civil disobedience campaign had inspired successful struggles in Ghana and Nigeria.
  • The retreat of the most powerful of the imperial powers that contributed to the weakening of lesser empires such as Dutch, French and Americans.
  • The loyalty of the Americans that most Philippines displayed and resistance against Japanese did bring a rapid independence.
  • The French struggled to retain Indonesia, communists revolutions in East Asia were victorious.
  • The European losses were severe that threats continued.
  • congress would the British they allowed them significant slave revolt
  • Why did Ganhdi get shot by a hindu frantic, wasn't he a Hindu?

Gandhi Leadership analysis

  • What is an Identity? It could be a national identity in which a person's identity and sense of belonging to one country or to one nation, a feeling one shares with a group of people, regardless of one's citizenship status. This is a feel that you get when having individual belief and values, culture with an entire group or nation.
  • How are our identities formed? Our identities are formed based on our cultural belief system that is unique for only us. It is a fundamental values and language that only your nation has. They are formed from old or ancient belief systems that apply to only you and people coming from the same religious belief system, and inborn trait.
  • How does our identity influence the way we see ourselves and others? Our identity gives us an individual meaning, but others who don't have the same belief system just disrupt their culture and way of life. So that means like Britain intrusion, and interference was like a function to be against their community.
  • What is conformity? teaching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to what individuals perceive is normal of their society or social group that a person follows others ways of life. It is when people follow the group but not themselves, you follow and are influenced by whom ever is in your society.
  • How does a society decide who belongs who does not? A society would chose a person based on their view, maybe i they are in acknowledgment of their identity like certain value, religion, culture, and language that has to correspond with everyone else, but this is in a strict society like India, not U.S.
  • How do our attitudes and beliefs influence our thinking? Our attitudes are what get our decision making to be different from everyone else, What we need to be aware is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. this is why people are very different in of culture, and things that someone would dod could be against the values of someone else.
  • What does it mean to belong to a group? It means to be part of a community and that group is where you fit is as a person they could be the one who share the same values as you or the common activities of goals.
  • How is membership defined and by whom is membership defined? member - one of the persons who compose a social group (especially individuals who have joined and participate in a group organization); there are signs that say only members will be admitted; or a member of the faculty; or a part of the family members are welcome in a dinner ceremony.



Graphic organizer