Industrial growth and imperialism


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Industrialization and Imperialism objectives

  • Describe the character and scale of industrialization

It was a way for Europe to dominate others, economic and political changes were resulted at which the development of the textile mills, and factories that contributed to a better system.
  • Explain the main effects of the Industrial revolution - Social, Poltical, Economic Cultural, and Technological

The social affect of Industrial revolution was that families had to get adjusted to a transition in demographics, improvemensts of condition level in economic pressures, stock investment and trade units, a rise in nationalism and government stimulation. City grown, and printing press, and cotton and textile facories developement/
  • Describe the connection between Industrialization and Imperialism

The industialization and commercial advancement it brout with it to Europe lead to a sense for the need for their superiority on other nations, lead to a growing number of colonized people.Technological innovations and mass production made it possible for European states to supply advanced weaponry and naval forced around the globe. Expeditionary forces of industrial power lead to a battle field in cotrolling others.
  • Analyze British Imperialism in India and Africa
In India the initial desire was trade, the Portuguese and others who had interests there. Trading concessions were granted but they had to be defended. One thing led to another and a ruled colony ensued. The ultimate in mission creep. There was, briefly, a great golden age of non-English British government in India in the early-mid 19thC Great Britain outlawed the slave trade in 1807 and slavery itself in 1834. British ships started to patrol the African coast to try to prevent other nations from engaging in the slave trade. Meanwhile, more and more explorers, whether Christian or secular, British or not, began to explore Africa. Nationalism, as revolutions swept through the Atlantic in the late 18th and early 19th centuries people came to identify themselves as part of a community called a nation. 1.
Complete the who, what, when, where, why analysis of the Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
  • Who: Igned by Germany, Russia and France, nations that were affected by the the religious and territorial acceptances.
  • What: an agreement on the peace marked the end of the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire and the emergence of France as a dominant power. It recognized the sovereignty of the German states, Switzerland, and the Netherlands; Lutherans, Calvinists, and Roman Catholics were given equal rights.
  • When: In 1648 ending the Thirty Years' War.
  • Where: Setttled a rebellion of the Netherlands against Spain giving it its independence.
  • Why: In Germany the war broke out in 1618 pitting Germany Protestants and allies such as the Lutheran Sweden against the Holy Roman empire backed by Spain. The war was devastating that it reduced German power and prosperity for a full century cutting population by as much as 60% in some regions.


2. Define nationalism in your own words:
It is the idea of putting primary emphasis on the country as a whole, and a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.

Take notes on the following. Make sure you connect the events back to nationalism.
  • Unification of Italy: The group of people became one, in which religion and other freedoms were protected. Italy developed a process called Transformismo or transformism in which parliamentary deputies no matter what platform you in. In addition most importantly Cavour formed an alliance with France that enabled them to attack Austrian control of northern Italy provinces on 1858. The war was set in motion a nationalist rebellion in other parts of the peninsula that allowed Cavour to unite most of Italy under the Piedmontese king.
  • Unification of Germany: Bismarck staged a series of wars in 1860s that extended the German power in the world. After a final war against France led to a unity in 1871. In 1866 Prussia emerged as a supreme power, a boasting a national government and an upper house favored conservative state parliament. A nationalist success won support for most liberals.
  • Zionism: the national movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland and the resumption of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, advocated, from its inception, tangible as well as spiritual aims. Austrian journalist Theodor Herzl, consolidated various strands of Zionist thought into an organized political movement, diaspora the spread of Jewish people all around the world, wanted a defined nation. Jews wanted a taste of having a united group.
  • Brazilian Independence: The successful revolution a rebellion and the establishment of an republic in the 1780s was unlike anything the modern world had yet seen, which caused a unification of their nation with nationalistic ideas. The Potuguese king Dom Joao VI lived in Brazil and ruled the empire, the arrival of so many bureaucrats caused resentment. Pedro refused and in september 1822 he declared Brazilian independece, he became Dom Pedro I the constitutional emperor of Brazil. It became a MONACHY UNDER PORTUGUESE CONTROL. An issued constitution in 1822 by Dom Pedro I, following of an experimentation of a Republican government.
  • Monroe Doctrine: American declaration stated in 1823 establishing that any attemt of a European country to colonize them would be an unfriendly thing. They were afraid that England would try and distrupt their political ideas, and prosperity. It was a diplomatic decisions to provide protections for the nations.
  • Argentine Republic: entered into a period of prosperity and growth under a series of liberal presidents that paralleled a reform in Mexico. It is a unified nation after a considerable fighting in 1862 and a new constitution is issued. A constitution was issued under the influence of Joan Bautista Alberdi, an able journalist who was strong about the need to encourage immigration. The constitution incorporated the programs of the federalist but guaranteed national unity through the power of the presidency over the provincial governors. By 1890 Argentina seemed to present the achievement of a liberal program for Latin America.
  • Balkan Nationalism: when they won independence from the Ottoman empire, had a threat to Austria, but with Turkish decline a local nationalism rose and Russia support for slavic neighbors paid off. WWI, which covered three continents (Europe, Africa, and West Asia), is an example of how a regional war in the Balkans could ignite an international crisis.
3. Summarize the global impact of nationalism (limit to 200 words/ 1/2 page)
A spirit of nationalism surfaced during the revolutions phase, as a result of European power rose, and extensions of Western civilization developed in other lands. In the unification of Germany Otto von Bismarck of Prussia extended the vote to all adult men. Conservatives used the force of nationalism to win support for the existing social order. In Britain and the United States, they won support by identifying with imperial causes; Cavour stimulated nationalist rebellion to unite most of the Italian peninsula under Piedmont. Bismarck fought wars in the 1860s and 1870s that led to German unity in 1871. Other nations also reduced key political issues. The American Civil War of the 1860s ended the dispute over sectional rights and abolished slavery. France established a conservative republic based on full adult male suffrage. Most Western nations by then had parliamentary systems in which basic liberties. The Civil War accelerated American industrialization and made the United States a major competitor of the leading industrial nations. New technology greatly elevated American agricultural production and exports. American cultural life was parochial; its major artists and writers sought inspiration in Western Europe. Western society was strained by an industrialization that increased the destructive capacity of warfare. Political leaders, more worried about social protest among the masses, tried to distract them by diplomatic successes. Many among the masses, full of nationalistic pride, applauded such actions. Balkan nations had won independence from the Ottomans during the nineteenth century, but hostility persisted among them, while nationalism threatened Austria-Hungary and its Slav population. Continuing crises finally led to the assassination of an Austrian archduke by a Serbian nationalist. The response of the nations in the two European alliances resulted in World War I. The Brazilian and Argentine republics were a result after considerable fighting that worked to compromise a new unified nation are other examples of nationalism.

Industrialization
Look at the data below and answer the questions that follow

1.1 Index Numbers of World Trade (Volume of trade in selected years compared to 1913)

Year
Index Number
1850
10
1870
24
1895
48
1901
67
1911
96
1913
100
1.2 Iron Production (1000's Metric Tons)

1830
1850
1913
Britain
700
2,716
9,792
France
244
1,262
4,626
Russia
167
231
3,870
Germany
111
246
14,836
1.3 Years of Life Expectancy at Birth
Country
Year: 1820
Year: 1900
Britain
40
50
Average,rest of Western Europe
36
46
United States
39
47
Japan
34
44
Russia
28
32
Average, all Latin America
27
32
Average, all Asia
23
24
Average all Africa
23
24

  • Which of the data sets above do you think is the most significant? Why?
I think that the data set that is most significant is the world trade capacity that advanced in comparison to 1850 and the iron production which had a lot of connection to industrial growth that happened it the world because of the steel manufacturing and industrial revolution.
  • Taken together what do these data sets tell us?
These data tell us how much of an impact the industrialization helped the world capacity to producing economic influences that had support to the years of life expectancy in all the nations of the world. The world had to go through many changes after the revolution occurred in terms of social, political, and economic conditions. But it also shows that not all the nations are on the same page, which would cause competition.

2. Read the following and answer the questions below
external image pdf.png Industrial Revolution Introduction.pdf
  • What was the Industrial revolution?

A revolution that began in Britain, primary on the world trade and enlightenment ideas of ongoing progress, food production, and increasing demand for cotton textiles and iron. It spread western Europe and and the U.S and by 191 much of the world. It as a transforming change to all the people in
  • What was its origins?

Its origin is in England in the late eighteen century, it began with the use of coal, steam and iron as areas of change. A revolution of production, and technological advancement in technology.
  • What were its major effects?

The results were spreading mobility in wealth and power, regulation of workers, the government taking actions in controlling the economy boom and bust. It also had effects in government regulation of workers and policies such as health and education improvement. It also helped with the colonialism and nationalism that lead to many enlightenment changes.

3. Now referring to your textbook investigate the following questions
  • In what areas of life did the Industrial revolution bring about major changes, and what were they? Whose lives were changed, how, why?

During the Industrial Revolution, the social structure of society changed dramatically. Before the Revolution most people lived in small villages, working either in agriculture or as skilled craftsmen. They lived and often worked as a family, doing everything by hand. In fact, three quarters of Britain's population lived in the countryside, and farming was the predominant occupation. With the advent of industrialization, however, everything changed. The new enclosure laws—which required that all grazing grounds be fenced in at the owner's expense—had left many poor farmers bankrupt and unemployed, and machines capable of huge outputs made small hand weavers redundant. As a result, there were many people who were forced to work at the new factories. This required them to move to towns and cities so that they could be close to their new jobs. It also meant that they made less money for working longer hours.
  • What problems did the Industrial Revolution create?

The Industrial Revolution was a vast time period that saw many, many changes in many parts of life. Following are some of these changes. The working class came about during this time. Life was hard for the working class who worked long, long hours for very low pay. Conditions were dirty and unsafe in the factories and people could easily be fired from a job for no reason at all. Cities grew during the Industrial Revolution. People moved from farms toward the factories to find jobs. Because of the rapid movement of people toward the cities, houses could not be built fast enough. Families would live in one room or in dirty conditions. The water was often dirty and unhealthy. Because of this many people died or got sick. Working class children were often forced to work at a very young age in very unsafe places. Many children became injured, sick or even died working in terrible factory conditions.
  • What movements occurred to 'fix' these problems?

The transformation of south african society, the indigenous peoples of those founded in the earlier centuries and the colonial realm, and the established age of industrialism throughout the 19th century where the migrating Bantu people were determined to to resist the seizure of the lands.
  • What are the connections between industrialization and nationalism?

The shift of agriculture economy to a based of manufacturing done by factories, and cotton production by spinning water mills, and government encouragement in France and Germany. Population growth, urbanization, rise of middle class, and working class caused a government owns and controls for means of production and natural resources. The government had to regulate the policies of public health and labor organizations.

Graphic organizer on effects of Industrialization
industrialization.jpg

Communism tends to delegate women and new ideology of rights.
Imperialism

1. Introduction
Examine the map below and the data that follows - What do they show us? (answer in discussion tab.)
british_empire.png
british_empire.png


Extent of Colonial Control


Great Britain
France
Belgium
Netherlands
Germany (1914)
Area in Square Miles
94,000
212,600
11,800
13,200
210,000
Population
45,500,100
42,000,000
8,300,000
8.500,000
67,500,000
Area of Colonies
13,100,000
4,300,000
940,000
790,000
1,100,000
Population of Colonies
470,000,000
65,000,000
13,000,000
66,000,000
13,000,000

SOURCE: Mary Evelyn Townsend, European Colonial Expansion Since 1871 (Chicago: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1941), p. 19

Percentage of Territories Belonging to the European/US Colonial Powers

(1900)

Percentage Controlled

Africa
90.4%
Polynesia
98.9%
Asia
56.5%
Australia
100.0%
Americas
27.2%
SOURCE: A. Supan, Die territoriale Entwicklung der Euroaischen Kolonien (Gotha, 1906), p. 254

The picture and statistics show that the colonialism and the need for more land to be taken in the world to belong to the Europeans of the United States was a major event in history. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe. Much of the world was taken over by them for example Africa, Polynesia, Asia, Australia, and the Americas which shows the consolidation in which the influence of their culture, and language. A global economic connection developed in the colonial societies. assuming that god said that their destiny to expand was a result in the exchanges in the world ways of life.

8. Define Imperialism in your own words:

A policy of extending your control over foreign nations, in which they directly acquires its territories.

9. What were the motivations for Imperialism?

While many countries, including but not limited to France, Germany, Belgium, and the United Nations, engaged in Imperialist activity; Great Britain is known above all as the best example of a true imperialist nation. We will examine the actions of Great Britain to gain a better understanding of the nature, extent and effects of Imperialism.

10. Before note-taking, look for the following key terms (not in the glossary!) and define them in your own words.

  • The British East India Company: 1600–1874, company chartered by Queen Elizabeth I for trade with Asia. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with Africa.
  • Sepoys: was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier in the service of a European power. Indian troops who were relied on heavily to settle the disputes and conflicts. In which Indian princes regarded British as allies whom they use to control and crush competitors from within India or put down people who try to seize their throne.
  • British Raj: is the name given to the period of British colonial rule in South Asia between 1858 and 1947; it can also refer to the dominion. It was a result of the fierce global rivalry between British and French. The two powers found themselves in opposite sides.
  • Partition of Africa/ Berlin Conference: 884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
  • Settlement Colonies: part-time farmers near industrial centers, all-rural colonies for farmers, territories the Europeans, Americans and Japanese claimed throughout the South Pacific were settled colonies resulting in demographic changes and social disruptions.
  • White Dominions: pattern of European occupation on indigenous people, Descendants of Eropeans settlers made up most of the population in colonies in which small numbers of native inhabitants had been taken by diseases and war conquest.
  • Cecil Rhodes: A British entrepreneur and prospector began to move in causing tension with Boers, Tensions led to a brief war in which the Boers were vistorious, but the British migration rose even more into the republic after gold wass discovered in Transvaal 1885.
  • James Cook: Hawaii was opened to the west through his voyage from 1777-1779. Cook was first welcomed as a god, partly because he had the good luck as a Hawaiian warriors tried to take over his ship for its metal nails. These humble objects were much prized by a people whose elaborate culture rested on a Neolithic technology and thus was without iron or steel. The Cook expedition and later British visits convinced a young Hawaiian prince Kamehameha that some imitation of Western ways could produce a unified kingdom under his leadership replacing the small and warring regional units that had been previously been present.
The notorious episode of the "Black Hole" of Calcutta furnishes an extraordinary instance of the manner in which historical narratives is taken place. It points equally to the difficulty of ascertaining "truth" in history. In 1756, Siraj-ud-daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, occupied Fort William and Calcutta, then the principal possession of the East India Company. 146 people are said to have been imprisoned, at the orders of the Nawab, in a small and airless dungeon at Fort William. Next morning, when the door was opened, 123 of the prisoners had died. This story was recounted by the survivor John Zephaniah Holwell, and soon became the basis for representing Indians as a base, cowardly, and despotic people.

11. Now go through your book and complete the graphic organizer below
Country
How Britain gained control - steps to conquest
Actions taken by Britain when in control/ power
Effects/ Reactions
India (note this will be more notes than the following two nations.)
The British experience resembled the Dutch process in Java. Agents of the British East India Company were drawn into local wars as the Mughal empire disintegrated during the eighteenth century. Following a pattern begun by the French, they relied on Indian troops (sepoys) trained in European military style. Successful intervention in disputes between Indians brought the British increasing territory.India was becoming Britain's major colonial possession. It contained the empire’s largest colonized population. Indian ports were vital to British sea power. During the nineteenth century,
India became the major colony for British manufactured goods and overseas investment, as well as a major supplier of raw materials.They adopted local styles of dress, food, housing, work habits, and political symbols. Since most of the Europeans were men, they lived with and married indigenous women.
The willingness of Indians to serve in British-led armies contributed a powerful land force to the empire.
South Africa
The Afrikaners were culturally different from the British and they resisted British pressure to end slavery. The differences caused many Afrikaners to move inland to regions occupied by Bantu peoples. The struggles between the two produced regional instability that led to British involvement.
The Afrikaners formed two interior republics during the 1850s and remained independent until the discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1885) renewed tensions that culminated with Afrikaner defeat in 1902.
subsequent British policy placed the majority of the African population under Afrikaner control.
New Zealand
In New Zealand, the first Europeans, timber merchants and whalers, established themselves among the Maori during the 1790s. Alcoholism and prostitution spread. The Maori suffered from the effects of firearms used in intergroup warfare and from devastating European diseases. The Maoris survived and began to adjust to the effect of the foreigners. They followed European-style farming and cut timber for export. Many converted to Christianity. A new contact period commenced in the early 1850s when British farmers and herders arrived.
A new contact period commenced in the early 1850s when British farmers and herders arrived. They occupied fertile regions and drove the Maoris into the interior.
the coming of colonial rule in the South Pacific resulted in demographic disaster and social disruption. The local population lacked immunities to European diseases, and their cultures proved vulnerable to cultural disruption from European goods and values.
12. Write a 1/2 - 1 page summary where you explain the connections between Nationalism, Industrialization and Imperialism

Western European industrialization fundamentally altered the nature of European overseas expansion. In previous times, Europeans sought desired material goods or moved against threats from external enemies. In the Americas, they seized lands for plantation crops. Christian missionaries sought converts. Much of the secular and religious thrust was due to a desire to strengthen Europe in the long contest with Islam. Industrialization brought new motives for expansion. Raw materials were needed to fuel industrial growth, and markets were required for its manufacturing production. Christian proselytizing continued, but private initiative replaced state direction. Another change was that the increased power of the West made it fear European imperial rivalries more than indigenous opposition. The British experience resembled the Dutch process in Java. Agents of the British East India Company were drawn into local wars as the Mughal empire disintegrated during the eighteenth century. Following a pattern begun by the French, they relied on Indian troops (sepoys) trained in European military style. The Europeans had to accommodate themselves to indigenous culture in order to survive. They adopted local styles of dress, food, housing, work habits, and political symbols. Since most of the Europeans were men, they lived with and married indigenous women. By the late nineteenth century, colonial administrators attempted to introduce scientific agricultural techniques and to make their subjects work harder and more efficiently to produce cheaper and more abundant raw materials. Among the incentives employed were the introduction of cheap consumer goods, increased taxation, and harsh forced labor. The economies of most colonies were reduced to dependence on industrialized European nations. Railways and roads were built to facilitate export of raw materials. Mining sectors grew dramatically and vast regions were given over to export crops rather than food. Enduring challenges came from among Western-educated individuals. They integrated strands from their own and Western culture to prepare the way for future resistance to foreign rule. Even through the reason for imperialism was the industrial production made, and there were many nationalistic motives in the European reasoning, however, it cause many distruption to other people who are vulnerable to be taken over.